Tuesday, June 30, 2015

What's Your #CX Strategy?

Image courtesy of Pixabay
What is a customer experience strategy? Have you laid the groundwork for a successful execution?

Let's start by defining "customer experience strategy."

A customer experience strategy helps you define, design, and, ultimately, deliver the desired customer experience (desired, of course, by your customers). Strategy is mainly about the how, but your CX strategy may also include details about the who, what, when, and the how much of experience design and helps everyone focus on those activities or improvements that will be most impactful to your customers. (It gets everyone on the same page, marching to the same beat.) There should absolutely be a hook into your corporate strategy.

Strategy without tactics is the slowest route to victory. Tactics without strategy is the noise before defeat. -Sun Tzu

Customer experience strategy is one of the six competencies of the Customer Experience Professionals Association's (CXPA) CCXP exam and something every customer experience professional should be well versed in/about. CXPA defines job tasks focused on CX strategy as:
  • Define a customer experience strategy that describes the intended customer experience, its linkage to overall corporate objectives, and its alignment with the organization’s brand values and attributes
  • Develop experience principles and specific employee behaviors and interactions that reflect brand values and organizational mission
  • Articulate the operating plan, investments, and tactics for programmatic components of the CX strategy
  • Communicate and engage employees at all levels of the organization in the elements of the CX strategy
As you develop your customer experience strategy, ensure you've made the following preparations to yield the best results:
  1. Start with a customer experience vision that outlines the intended outcome/experience. Without a vision, Yogi Berra's famous quote will become all too familiar: If you don't know where you are going, you'll end up someplace else.
  2.  Define and communicate your brand promise
  3. Understand your customers: who are they? what do they buy? what problems are they trying to solve? what are they trying to achieve? why do or don't they buy?
  4. Outline your personas: do different customers have different needs?
  5. Map your customer journeys and identify moments of truth and painpoints
  6. Help employees understand how they impact the experience (journey maps are helpful for this) and how they'll help to execute on the strategy
  7. Use the maps and the mapping exercise to break down those organizational silos; silos will absolutely be strategy killers
  8. Listen to your customers and prospects and be prepared to act on what you hear; experience (re)design must be rooted in customer understanding and listening
  9. Hire the right employees for your brand experience
  10. Make sure you have executive commitment, not only for the concept/strategy but also for the resources (human, financial, etc.); you may have to build your business case
  11. Ensure you've got a governance structure in place for oversight and to facilitate execution
  12. Outline your communication and training plan and remember that employees cannot execute on something they haven't been briefed on or know nothing about; Chuck Martin, former VP at IBM, said: The result of bad communication is a disconnection between strategy and execution.
  13. Clearly spell out the steps - how will you get there and who will do what; ongoing and open communication and reiteration will be essential
Get your ducks in a row. Outline the strategy in detail. And then execute.

As Morris Chang, CEO of TSMC, was quoted: Without strategy, execution is aimless. Without execution, strategy is useless.

Tuesday, June 23, 2015

Engaged Employees Drive Business Growth

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I originally wrote today's post for Intradiem. It appeared on their blog on January 22, 2015.

Fact: The employee experience drives the customer experience. I know I'm stating the obvious - but, shockingly, to many, it is not that obvious. So many companies still fail to recognize that important connection, to the ultimate detriment of the business.

Why is the customer experience so bad? Because when 70% of our workforce is "not engaged" or "actively disengaged," according to Gallup, we cannot expect to have a great customer experience. If your employees aren't engaged, it will be very difficult for them to delight your customers. If you don't care about what you're doing, it shows. If you're not thrilled with - or passionate about - what you do, your heart's not in it, and really, you are just showing up. Barely. That does not a great experience make. For anyone. In very simple terms, this describes "the spillover effect."

Gallup defines engaged employees as "those employees working with passion and feeling a profound connection to their companies; they drive innovation and move the organization forward." Disengaged employees, on the other hand, are "checked out and just putting time, but not energy or passion, into their work." They're actually a drain on the engaged workforce, and they "undermine what their engaged coworkers accomplish."

As you can see, this is a huge problem! With such a small percentage of engaged employees, we can't have anyone undermining the few. Not only do the disengaged impact the customer experience, but they also impact the experience of their fellow employees.

I love this quote from Herb Kelleher, which nicely sums up employee engagement:

“Engaged employees are not just committed. They are not just passionate or proud. They have a line-of-sight on their own future and on the organization’s mission and goals. They are ‘enthused’ and ‘in gear,’ using their talents and discretionary effort to make a difference in their employer’s quest for sustainable business success. I’ve never had control, and I never wanted it. If you create an environment where people truly participate, you don’t need control. They know what needs to be done and they do it.” –Herb Kelleher, Southwest Airlines

How, then, do we get to this state of nirvana?

First and foremost, no one can make an employee engaged. It doesn't work that way. It cannot be mandated. Instead, there must be some confluence of: (1) emotions, commitment, passion, sense of ownership, etc. on the part of the employee about the brand and (2) what the organization does (purpose, brand promise, who the company is and why, etc.) to facilitate and enhance those emotions or that commitment - then we have employee engagement.

Engagement comes from within the employee. It's the emotional connection or commitment that an employee has to the organization that then causes the employee to want to put forth the additional effort to ensure the organization and the brand succeed. What the company can and must do is build a culture and an environment that facilitates employee engagement.

Here's how companies can do their part:
  • Start with hiring the right people
  • Provide clear job descriptions that set expectations about roles
  • Offer an onboarding process that includes details about what it means to work for your company
  • The view from the top must be "employees more first"
  • Communicate your brand promise and your purpose clearly and consistently
  • Define, communicate, and live by your core values; find and hire people who are predisposed to living by those same values
  • Provide clarity - of purpose and more
  • Give employees direction and (then) freedom
  • Empower employees to do and to think for themselves, which means/translates to responsibility, accountability, and ownership
  • Treat employees well; respect them, and they'll reciprocate
  • Develop and support a culture of employee ownership. Facilitate a grassroots effort to help employees make the brand their own.
  • Provide ongoing training and coaching
  • Provide a career path and career development
  • Ensure that employees have a clear line of sight to the big picture, e.g., company vision and mission, as well as to customers
  • Recognize employees for a job well done
  • Show appreciation
  • Provide performance feedback on a regular basis
  • Let employees know how they contribute and how their work matters
  • Listen to employees and act on their feedback
  • Map the employee journey to really understand their experience
  • Communicate openly, candidly, and with transparency
  • Eliminate barriers to employee success, e.g., bad policies and processes
  • Trust employees
  • Lead with integrity
An important thing to remember is that much of this effort on the company's behalf begins with the employee's manager. Yes, company leaders and executives drive a lot of the higher-level items on the list, e.g., vision, mission, etc., but the employee has a much closer relationship with his manager than he does with the CEO. You know how the saying goes: Employees leave managers, not companies. The manager is critical to the employee experience.

Make no mistake. Employees who enjoy their work - those who are passionate about what they are doing and for whom they are doing it - deliver results. Because of that enthusiasm and that passion for the brand, for the business, employees are eager to contribute to its success. And when we're all working together for the success of the business, I believe that, ultimately, customers will win, too. As will your shareholders.

The way your employees feel is the way your customers will feel. And if your employees don’t feel valued, neither will your customers. -Sybil F. Stershic

Friday, June 19, 2015

Aligning the Organization Around the Customer with Customer Rooms

Image courtesy of Pixabay
Is your entire company - executives and employees alike - aligned with and around the customer?

Do they know who your customers are? Do they understand the customer experience? How are you getting employees immersed in the customer experience? What tools or approaches have you been using? Are you looking for some new tools to help with this?

And are you still struggling to get buy-in, to get company leadership on board with focusing on the customer?  You're not alone if you are, trust me.

A couple years ago, I wrote about several different ways to get executive buy-in for your customer experience initiatives and to get a commitment from them to focus the organization on the customer and on driving change to better the customer experience. We know that having executive commitment is critical to the success of any CX strategy. Without it, you'll never get resources - human, capital, or other - that you'll need to execute. So I'm always happy to share different ways for you to ensure your executives and employees are on board and can walk in customers' shoes, thereby helping them to really understand the experience and buy into the need to fix things.

Jeanne Bliss writes about a different approach to achieve customer understanding and organizational alignment: the customer room. It's not new; she wrote about customer rooms five years ago. This year, though, she devotes a few pages in her new book, Chief Customer Officer 2.0: How to Build Your Customer-Driven Growth Engine, to this topic and includes an example from The Irvine Company. I love that she describes the customer room as a visual storytelling tool, "a way for your leaders and organization to step through customers' lives." That's exactly what it is - a way for executives and employees to take on the customer's persona and walk in his shoes.

The customer room will contain details about the customer (personas) and the customer journey; it will include artifacts from that journey, including screenshots, pictures, relevant tools and processes that the customer uses or interacts with (e.g., invoices, order forms, contracts, letters or emails, etc.), recorded customer calls, customer feedback, and more, so that executives and employees can experience the journey themselves - from the customer's viewpoint. It's like a customer journey map that's been brought to life; the room is used to help executives and employees step through the journey, and to educate, brainstorm, and redesign the experience. Create the journey maps first and then build the customer room; then print your maps and hang them on the walls of the room.

Customer rooms are used for:
  • building executive commitment
  • educating and aligning the organization
  • understanding the customer and his experience
  • building empathy for the customer
  • onboarding new employees
  • training employees on an ongoing basis
  • shifting organization thinking to outside-in from inside-out
  • providing inspiration for experience redesign efforts
  • brainstorming and making improvement suggestions
  • recognizing employees and teams after improvements are implemented

Jeanne lists four benefits of engaging executives with customer rooms. Customer rooms allow them to...
  1. Connect the dots to ROI: executives prove they care about the reasons for customer retention and attrition.
  2. Care about the customer: executives can walk in customers' shoes and experience what they experience as they try to achieve some task with the organization; it helps them build empathy for the customer.
  3. Focus, prioritize, and commit: it brings leaders together, to work together in a united manner on those few priorities that matter most to the customer; it gets everyone to focus on those initiatives critical to the overall experience versus siloed efforts on disparate initiatives.
  4. Drive accountability and reward the middle: create a cycle of accountability for those tasked to lead customer experience improvement initiatives.
I think it's pretty straightforward to see how customer rooms are a valuable tool for your organization. If you can't get everyone out into the field to experience what customers experience, bring the experience to them.

Other than The Irvine Company, customer rooms are being used by companies like Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan, Cigna,  Prime Therapeutics, TD Ameritrade, St. Jude’s Children’s Hospitals, and Bombardier Aircraft.

Have you found any interesting or unique ways to get executive commitment or to build empathy for your customers? Have you thought about building a customer room?

There's a difference between interest and commitment. When you're interested in doing something, you do it only when it's convenient. When you're committed to something, you accept no excuses - only results. -Ken Blanchard

Tuesday, June 16, 2015

When the Going Gets Tough...

Image courtesy of Dana Lookadoo
When the going gets tough, does your company give up? Or does it get going?

You're a customer experience professional, right? Even if you're not, I think you'll appreciate this story/post.

How much does the following scenario describe your company?

You've made some strides with your customer experience initiatives. You've gotten buy-in from (some) executives, or so you've been told. Everyone seems to be moving in the right direction, and the focus is on the customer and his experience. You've built your business case, and that seems to have solidified the need to get everyone centered on the customer and to focus on improving the experience. You've got a roadmap, a governance structure, and some initiatives in place with owners and project plans. You're truly making progress. Perhaps they get it: The bottom line of a great customer experience is a great bottom line.

Then. Bam!

The numbers are in. You had a bad month or a bad quarter. And everyone wants to abandon the CX ship and go back to focusing on acquisition over retention. You need to put the focus back on marketing, advertising, and sales, on acquiring new customers. You need to set aside any customer experience improvement initiatives. Clearly, the focus on customer experience initiatives distracted everyone from selling. That must be why numbers are down

Say what?!

By now, everyone should know that focusing on the customer experience is as important to retaining customers as it is to acquiring new ones. Have they lost their minds? Instead of figuring out where the breakdown occurs in the customer experience, they want to just focus on how to bring in new customers, who will ultimately leave. Why? Because the experience stinks!

What happens when companies spend huge sums of (marketing) dollars on customer acquisition when they can't even keep the customers they have because their products, services, and experience stink? I think you know. I think the scenario above just captured it.

What should they be doing on an ongoing basis?

  • listening to customers
  • mapping customer journeys and identifying moments of truths/painpoints
  • fixing the painpoints
  • following up with customers
  • making the experience effortless
  • and more...
  • and then watching the customers/sales return
Just because sales are down doesn't mean it's time to take the focus off customer experience improvement initiatives and place it on driving sales. (This assumes most companies differentiate or delineate the two, which they do.) Those customer experience improvement initiatives will ultimately drive sales! This is when it's most critical to stay the course.

Why do companies return to what they know, what we're comfortable with, rather than doing what's right, what's different from everyone else... focusing on the customer experience.

If you're just beginning your customer experience improvements, stay the course. Don't let the numbers derail you. Perhaps there's something else happening to bring the numbers down. Perhaps you're not listening to customers. Perhaps you're not focusing on the right improvement initiatives. Perhaps customers haven't yet benefited from the improvements. Perhaps there are outside forces. There are a number of reasons that sales might be down. The important thing to remember is that the customer experience is a journey, and so are the improvement efforts.

When companies focus on the customer and his experience, the numbers will ultimately reflect it.

In the middle of difficulty lies opportunity. -Albert Einstein

Friday, June 12, 2015

CX Journey™ Musings: Do You Know Your Customers' Backstories?

Image courtesy of umjanedoan
Every customer has a backstory. Do you listen for it?

Let's start with defining the term first, as I often do. What is a backstory?

Dictionary.com says that it's: a narrative providing a history or background context, while TheFreeDictionary.com states that it's the experiences of a character or the circumstances of an event that occur before the action or narrative...; the set of background conditions and events leading to a real-life situation; a prequel

Why is this an important topic that customer experience professionals would be interested in? 
The purpose of being in business is all about the customer, right. And most important to a successful customer experience and, ultimately, a successful business, is customer understanding: who he is, what he's trying to achieve, what his painpoints are, and more.

Your customers have backstories. They have experiences and circumstances that occur before they have a need that brings them to your front door. Those backstories shape who they are and how your brand fits into their lives.

How do you uncover those backstories? Simple: listen to customers; ask questions; get to know them.

Consider the example that I gave in last month's post, The Future of Customer Experience. It's an example of anticipatory service, but this is a great use of a customer backstory.

Scenario: A USAA member calls to submit a change of address. Since members are military personnel, USAA knows a little bit about the individual, not the least of which is that an address change probably comes with a larger life change. Agents ask members other questions to understand the customer's backstory, which helps them to determine an appropriate solution and experience for the member.

Maybe that's not a perfect example, but it illustrates how when you understand a little bit more about where the customer is coming from, you can design a better experience for him and likely anticipate needs going forward.

Once we know customer backstories, we need to share them with others so that the experience is consistent for the customer across the organization; when we tell the stories, we facilitate customer understanding within the organization.

The backstory is also important because it creates a connection, one that is both personal and emotional. The emotions elicited as a result of the story support that customer relationship. They help to create empathy for the customer, as well. Backstories form the foundation for the connection between the customer and the brand. And, in the end, that bond will be  what makes people want to see your brand succeed - for the greater good.

If the backstory is the prequel, what will you uncover about the customer to help you define the sequel? How will you use that backstory? How does it impact the customer experience and CX design?

The purpose of a storyteller is not to tell you how to think, but to give you questions to think upon. -Brandon Sanderson, The Way of Kings

Tuesday, June 9, 2015

Customer Experience Isn't Just About Customer Service

Image courtesy of Unsplash
I originally wrote today's blog for LiveNinja; it appeared on their blog on November 24, 2014. The topic is one I've written about before, but it's definitely worthy of repeating.

One of the biggest mistakes that I see made by well-meaning folks in an effort to shift organizational thinking toward a greater focus on customers is the inability to distinguish between customer service and customer experience.

"There's a difference?" You ask.

Yup! And it's a big one. One that is well worth noting, remembering, and evangelizing.


When we use these two terms interchangeably, we cause confusion. We confuse employees, and we confuse the marketplace. It's important to know that they are not one and the same.

I spend a lot of time talking to prospects and clients about how to sell the value of focusing on delivering a great customer experience to their company leaders. It’s so disheartening because it seems so obvious. Instead, I hear a lot of misplaced ideas and excuses; one that I hear often is: "But we have a customer service department. We spend time and energy making sure we get customer service right."

I also see job postings where titles erroneously refer to the position as a "customer experience" role. First we fight to get recognition for the CX profession, and then everyone jumps on the bandwagon, making it trendy to put "customer experience" in every title, e.g., calling a call center agent or a retail sales associate a "customer experience representative." Again, more confusion.

They're not the same thing.

What, then, is customer experience? In its simplest definition, it is (a) the sum of all the interactions that a customer has with a company over the course of the relationship lifecycle and (b) the customer's feelings, emotions, and perceptions of the brand over the course of those interactions.

Customer service? It's just one of those interactions or a type of interaction. It is just one touchpoint along the customer's journey with your organization. As Chris Zane says: Customer service is what happens when the customer experience breaks down. I love that definition and way of distinguishing the two.

Think about this: If you got everything else right, perhaps the customer wouldn't need to call customer service. The experience (the "everything else" plus service) starts long before the service event. Keep in mind, too, that not every customer experience even includes a service event.

Another way to look at the difference? Customer experience is proactive, while customer service is reactive. Customer experience is proactive because we intentionally build or design the experience that we want our customers to have - and that they want to have. (Hopefully that means it's based on customer understanding - we understand who they are and what they are trying to achieve, which guides CX design.) Customer service is reactive in the sense that we're constantly responding to issues and needs as they arise. It's a bit like Whack-a-Mole, while customer experience is more like Monopoly. A sprint vs. a marathon. A point in time vs. a lifetime.

Another approach: customer experience is what the customer feels; customer service is what the company does (for the customer).

And one more: customer service is a department, while customer experience is not; it's a discipline.
And finally, another consideration: think about the difference as a journey vs. a touchpoint. Customer experience is the journey; customer service is a touchpoint. Why is this viewpoint important? When we focus on the entire journey, not solely on individual touchpoints, we deliver a much better experience overall for the customer - and, as a result, for the business. When you just consider touchpoints and single moments of truth, you're focusing on transactional relationships, not on trusted, long-lasting relationships.

Still not sure? How else can you tell the difference?

Map the customer journey - from the customer's perspective - and plot all the ways in which the customer touches or interacts with your organization. Yea, the touchpoints. They are parts of the experience - a point in time - but they alone are not the sum total experience - a lifetime.

Have you had to make this distinction to your co-workers, executives, or clients? How did you describe it? How do we get organizations to think about these two concepts in a different way?

If we are not customer driven, our cars won’t be either. -Donald Peterson, former CEO, Ford Motor Company

Thursday, June 4, 2015

CX Journey™ Musings: Are We Dumbing Down the Customer Experience?

Image courtesy of Pixabay
Does "imitate the competition" describe your approach to customer experience design? 

Are you more focused on what your competitors or other companies are doing than on your own business, customers, and customer experience strategy?

I feel like some companies are dumbing down their customers and the customer experience.

Why do I call it "dumbing down?" Let's define it first, in case you're not familiar with the phrase. According to Merriam-Webster, dumbing down is: to lower the level of difficulty and the intellectual content of. 

Every time I pick up a book about customer experience, I'm shocked (sarcasm) to see yet another one cite Apple, Zappos, Ritz-Carlton, or Nordstrom as the poster children for a great customer experience. Don't get me wrong, they are (the poster children).

But do companies rely too much on those examples to simply lower the level of difficulty in execution for themselves - so that they don't have to think about how to develop something unique and specific to their own brand?

Think about the word "brand" for a second. It's not just a unique mark on an animal (sorry, the farm girl in me surfaced for a minute), it's a company's unique mark, too. Heidi Cohen provides some great definitions of "brand" on her site.

But I digress.

When companies "dumb down" their customer experience to be (or try to be) like someone else's, it's unoriginal. As if customers want and expect the same thing from every company with which they interact.

So if companies all think that they have to be like Apple or Ritz-Carlton or Zappos or Nordstrom, does that mean they can't think for themselves? Does that mean that companies can't be themselves? Does that mean your company has to be like them? And what if your customers don't want you to be like them? What if your customers have different needs or want a different experience with you? Because you're you?

I feel like companies are just being lazy if they think they can just do what others are doing and call it their customer experience.

Note that I use those companies as examples, too. But to inspire, not to copy. Let those examples help you raise your own bar, but you can't imitate.

From Forrester, we know that customer experience quality is based on:
  • Effectiveness: customers get value from the experience
  • Ease: customers get value without difficulty
  • Emotion: customers feel good about the experience
Bain tells us that the five disciplines in which customer experience leaders excel:
  1. Compelling vision linked to brand promise: What do we want to stand for in the eyes of our customers?
  2. Must-win battles defined from the outside: Which handful of actions will generate the most impact with our target customers?
  3. NPS/customer feedback for continuous improvement: How can we use customer feedback to promote learning and behavior change among employees?
  4. Customer experience redesign: When we put ourselves in the customer’s shoes, what aspects of the experience need to change?
  5. How can we anticipate and mitigate the risks, in order to sustain the changes?
And there are other firms out there who recommend their own set of attributes to describe customer experience leaders. I've written that I believe a customer experience ought to be built on trust and be personal, memorable, remarkable, emotional, and consistent.

You cannot be remarkable by following someone else who's remarkable. -Seth Godin

These are just attributes to follow, to use as design guidelines, not exact experiences to mimic.

Not everyone can be a Zappos or an Apple or a Nordstrom or a Ritz Carlton. And perhaps that's not what customers expect. These companies are inspirational and aspirational, but you need to figure out what your customers want and need and expect.

Listen to your customers. Understand who they are and what they are trying to achieve. Then go forth and design an experience that is relevant to them. Not to someone else's business or to someone else's customers.

If we all worked on the assumption that what is accepted as true is really true, there would be little hope of advance. -Orville Wright

Tuesday, June 2, 2015

Hire for People Skills: Are Those Skills Taught or Innate?

Image courtesy of Pixabay
We advocate hiring for attitude and training for skill, right? 

Where do you think that attitude comes from? If attitude is defined as: a manner of thinking, feeling, or behaving that reflects a state of mind or disposition (according to The Free Dictionary), I suppose we need to change the thinking to be: hire for people skills and train for technical skills... or hire for soft skills and train for hard skills.

Where do people, or soft, skills come from? Who taught us to treat others with kindness and respect? Who taught us to be/think positive? Are those learned or innate? I'm split. I think some of it is in our DNA, while some of it is learned. How did your parents treat each other? Did you observe how they treated others? Somewhere in our young lives, we learned how to interact with others.

Along comes a new book by Kirt Manecke written specifically for teens, teaching them that good people skills are critical to getting a job and to having a successful career. I wrote about another of Kirt's books a couple years ago: Smile: Sell More with Amazing Customer Service. That one is for the adult in us, but the one I'm writing about today - Smile & Succeed for Teens - is for our kids. And for the kid in us.

My 13 year old enjoyed it. If you have (or have had) teenagers, you know they have the attention span of a gnat. This book is written in a quick and easy format that can be read in order, out of order, over the course of months, or all at once. It's a quick read but an important one.

Similar to his first book, in this book, Kirt outlines the Top 10 People Skills. He explains each one, outlines how to deliver that skill, and provides some examples and scenarios that help teens relate. The 10 Skills are...

1. Smile. A smile can create a friend or a customer. It's one of your most important people skills. When you first meet someone, greet them with a smile.
2. Make Good Eye Contact. Eye contact is a great way to make a positive first impression. It conveys respect, confidence, competence, honesty, and interest.
3. Turn Off the Electronics. If you're engrossed in your electronics, you're not focused on the people around you. Simple as that.
4. Say Please and Thank You. Needs no explanation!
5. Shake Hands Firmly. A firm handshake also creates a good first impression. We often form immediate and lasting opinions of the person with which we are shaking hands.
6. Introduce Yourself: Make a Friend. Don't be afraid to initiate a conversation with a person you'd like to get to know.
7. Pay Attention. Listen. Build trust and show you care. Make eye contact. Focus on what's being said. Engage in a conversation.
8. Be Enthusiastic. It's contagious. It shows that you're interested and passionate. Enthusiastic people are energizing and engaging.
9. Ask Questions. Asking questions makes for a good conversation.
10. Practice Proper Body Language. Body language says more than you think. Many of the other skills mentioned here fall under body language: smile, make good eye contact, pay attention, stand up straight.

After explaining the 10 Skills, Kirt outlines ways that teens can use them to succeed in school, at work, and in life, and then goes on to explain other skills, including those that relate best to selling, delivering a great customer experience, volunteering, and being a rock star who changes the world!

Honestly, I don't think it's too early to teach these skills and scenarios to our kids.

A smile is the curve that sets everything straight. -Phyllis Diller